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under-hedging

Under-hedging is to the application of a lower-than-optimal optimal hedge ratio to hedge a given FX exposure. Under-hedging is common when forward points are ‘against’ a company, for example when a European firm sells in Emerging Markets currencies that trade at a forward discount to EUR. Risk managers are naturally reluctant to sell these currencies […]

unrealised gains and losses

Unrealised FX gains or losses reflect the change in the value of foreign currency denominated sales/purchase transactions that are recorded in financial statements prior to the settlement of the invoices. For example, a U.S.-based company sells EUR 100,000 worth of motor vehicle parts to a European distributor. When the invoice was recognised, the spot EUR-USD […]