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open forward contract

An open forward contract is a contractual agreement to buy or sell a specified amount of one currency against payment in another currency on or before a specified date in the future known as the ‘value date’. By contrast, when both parties are legally obliged to exchange the funds on the value date, the forward […]

optimal hedge ratio

In FX hedging with futures contracts, the optimal hedge ratio is the number of futures contracts required to hedge a given exposure. As an example, a Candadian farmer has signed a contract to sell 800,000 pounds of live cattle to a U.S. supermarket in three months’ time, at USD 1.65/pound. The spot USD-CAD rate is […]

other comprehensive income (oci)

Other comprehensive income is part of the ‘Statement of comprehensive income as defined in the rules set by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The statement of comprehensive income extends the conventional income statement to include certain other gains and losses that affect shareholders equity. Among the gains and losses recorded in ‘Other comprehensive income’ […]

outright forward

An outright forward contract is a contractual agreement to buy or sell a specified amount of one currency against payment in another currency at a specified date in the future known as the ‘value date’. By contrast, when both parties can exchange the funds before the value date, the forward contract is said to be […]

over-hedging

Over-hedging describes the situation of a firm that has hedged in anticipation of an exposure that has failed to materialise completely. Over-hedging is common in companies with low forecast accuracy that apply static hedging, with a big hedge taken at the start of the period. If these positions. Firms that find themselves in a situation […]

over-the-counter derivatives (otc)

Over-the-counter derivatives (OTC derivatives) are financial contracts —such as forwards, swaps and options— that are traded through a dealer network rather than through a centralised exchange. The lack of an exchange that guarantees all trades means that the parties to an OTC transaction are exposed to counterparty risk. While currency forward contracts are ‘over-the-counter’, futures […]