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early draw

An early draw involves exchanging a portion of the total amount specified in a flexible FX forward contract before the expiration of the contract.The period in which the contract holder can activate early draws, for example three months, is established in the contract terms. Flexible forward contracts are an effective method of hedging against currency […]

ecb exchange rates

ECB exchange rates are a set of daily foreign exchange rates, published by the European Central Bank (ECB), that are used as reference by companies and other participants in FX markets. The reference rates are usually updated around 16:00 CET on every working day on the ECB website. ECB exchange rates are based on a […]

economic calendar

The economic calendar is a schedule of the most relevant economic events followed by investors. These events often have a significant impact on the financial markets and currency volatility. Foreign exchange markets are most affected by monetary and fiscal policy announcements, as well as by financial reports. A currency calendar allows investors to know what […]

economic exposure

Economic exposure to foreign exchange risk is the extent to which the present value of a firm’s expected future cash flows is affected by exchange rate changes. Economic exposure comprises two cash flow exposures: transaction exposure and operating exposure. Transaction exposure reflects future FX-denominated cash flows that result from already existing, contractually binding, sales or […]

economic exposure management

Economic exposure management is the set of hedging programs, pricing strategies and other measures taken by companies to protect themselves from the effects of adverse currency fluctuations. Economic exposure comprises two cash flow exposures: transaction exposure and operating exposure. Transaction exposure can be managed by implementing the adequate hedging program or combination of hedging programs. […]

economic value added (eva)

Economic Value Added (EVA) is an economic performance metric that results from comparing a firm’s return on capital ROC with its cost of capital r. In its simplest version, the formula is: EVA = (ROC – r) x Total capital When a firm’s return on capital exceeds its cost, the performance is satisfactory from investors’s […]

effective hedging relationship

Hedging relationship effectiveness is a concept introduced by the hedge accounting standards, referring to the extent to which changes in the fair value of a hedged item are offset by opposite changes in the fair value of the financial derivative instrument intended to hedge it. An effective hedging relationship is one of the main requirements […]

enterprise currency management (ecm)

Enterprise currency management is a software category that comprises a wide range of solutions designed to automate different aspects of a firm’s currency management. Included in this automation process is the ‘FX Workflow’ framework, i.e. the procedures involved in the pre-trade, trade and post-trade phases of FX hedging. The vast majority of Enterprise currency management […]

equity funding

As a result of the sharp reduction in bank lending to companies after the Global Financial Crisis, equity crowdfunding has been the solution for many budding start-ups, providing much needed capital in exchange for equity. Equitynet and FundedByMe are but two examples.

exchange rate

An exchange rate is the price of one country’s currency in terms of another currency, often known as the reference currency. For example, EUR-USD = 1.25 expresses the number of U.S. dollars that one euro will buy. In this example, EUR is the base currency. The same exchange rate, however, can be expressed as USD-EUR […]