IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement

IAS 39 is the international accounting standard, established by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), which sets out the requirements for recognising and measuring financial assets and liabilities, as well as some of the contracts to buy and sell non-financial items. In this respect, IAS 39 also establishes the conditions to apply hedge accounting as […]


The IFRS 9 Financial Instruments are the new accounting standards introduced by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in 2014, to replace the IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, and their application has been mandatory from the 1 January 2018. These new standards determine the requirements for the recognition, measurement, impairment and derecognition of […]

Indian Rupee

The Indian rupee is the official currency of the Republic of India, its ISO code is INR, and its symbol is (₹). The rupee is issued by the Reserve Bank of India, and its value is subdivided in 100 paise (paisa in singular). The rupee is one of the oldest currencies in the planet. Its […]


Inflation is an economic concept referring to the pace at which the prices of goods and services increase over time. A low, sustainable level of inflation is crucial for healthy economic growth, and therefore one of the main objectives of central banks’ monetary policy is to maintain inflation close to a 2% annual rate. Inflation, […]

Interest rate risk

An interest rate risk is the risk that an investment’s value will change due to a change, either in the total level of interest rates, or in the bid/ask spread. It is also a term which is used in currency forward contracts. The price of a forward contract (open forward contract and closed forward contract) […]

Interest Rate Swaps

An Interest Rate Swap is an agreement to exchange the interest rates on future payments between two counterparties. Interest rate swaps are normally signed by counterparties willing to exchange a fixed interest rate for a floating rate and vice-versa. Companies facing cross border risk or with a future foreign currency liability may wish to swap their […]

International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)

The International Accounting Standards Board is an independent body responsible for the development and publication of the IFRS standards as well as for defining the interpretation of those standards, following the criteria of the IFRS Interpretations Committee. The IASB was founded in 2001 to succeed the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC), and the IFRS was […]

International bank account number (IBAN)

IBAN is the acronym for an International Bank Account Number, which is a universally recognised alphanumeric code used to identify a bank account. This system was designed to simplify international transactions, facilitate cross-border communication between banks and minimise the risk of transcription errors. An IBAN comprises up to 32 alphanumeric characters, includes a two-letter country […]

International transaction

An international transaction is a money transfer (often as part of a business deal) that crosses national borders, frequently involves two different currencies, and can even involve three currencies if a reserve currency, such as the US dollar is used. More info Currency Accounts International Payments Payments Hub International transactions for businesses For example, a […]

Internationale Transaktion

Eine internationale Transaktion ist eine Überweisung ins Ausland, die häufig zwei verschiedene Währungen einbezieht. Manchmal auch drei, wenn zum Beispiel eine Reservewährung wie der US-Dollar verwendet wird. Eine Ausnahme von dieser Definition besteht, wenn zwei Unternehmen aus verschiedenen Ländern der Eurozone internationale Transaktionen miteinander durchführen, da sie dieselbe Währung – den Euro – verwenden. Beispiel […]