business foreign exchange

Business foreign exchange refers to the trading of currencies for purposes of real international trade of goods and services, in contrast to the vast majority of FX trades, which are purely speculative. This activity represents less than 2% of the USD5.3 trillion exchanged daily on the global FX market, while speculative trading accounts for the […]


cash collection

Cash collection, also known as payment collection, is a treasury function that describes the process whereby a company recovers cash from other businesses (or individuals) to whom it has previously issued an invoice. The key objective of cash collection is to get invoices paid on their due date. New payment settlements or credit terms also […]

cash concentration

Cash Concentration is a corporate treasury management technique involving the transfer of all funds from different accounts to a single, centralised account to increase cash management efficiency and reduce fees. There are numerous advantages to concentrating all available funds into a single account. Businesses can improve the visibility and availability of their funds and gain […]

cash flow at risk (cfar)

Cash Flow at Risk (CFaR), in the context of foreign exchange, is a measure of the extent to which future cash flows and operating profit margins may fall short of expectations as a result of currency fluctuations. CFaR calculations take into account the volatility of the currency pairs in the exposure and their correlation, in […]

cash flow hedge

A cash flow hedge is a hedging program designed to protect a company’s expected future revenues and costs from currency fluctuations. Cash flow hedges are concerned with a firm’s economic exposure. A firm may undertake cash flow hedges to protect its budgeted exposure from FX risk. Depending on a company’s specific situation in terms of […]

cash management

Cash management is concerned with selecting the optimal combination of current assets —cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable and inventory — and current liabilities, or short-term funds to finance those current assets. For companies with international operations, cash management must take into account the impact of currency fluctuations. Cash management can be organised on a decentralise […]

cash pooling

Cash pooling is a centralised cash management technique used by a company or a group of companies to ‘pool’ cash balances together in order to save on costs. Since only one balance is obtained for each bank with which a company or a group of companies operate, companies can manage interest charges and the balance […]

central bank

A central bank is a government-sponsored entity entrusted with the issuance and management of a country’s currency. In the case of the Eurozone, the central bank is a pluri-national entity. Because they have a monopoly on the issuance of banks and notes, central banks can exercise a decisive influence on short-term money market interest rates—and, […]

central counterparty clearing house (ccp)

A central counterparty clearing house is defined by the Bank for International Settlements as an entity that interposes itself between counterparties to contracts traded in one or more financial markets, becoming the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer and thereby ensuring the performance of open contracts. Unlike currency forward markets, which […]

centralised treasury

Centralised Treasury is the system of financial management used by international companies with subsidiaries, in which funding activities, investment and foreign exchange decisions are made not by local treasurers but by one centrally located treasury team. Supporters argue that centralised treasury operations enhance cash-flow visibility, optimises liquidity across the organisations, increases efficiency by reducing redundancies, […]